Glossary by alphabetic list :
Chemically precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC)
can be formed from the same naturally occurring limestone by exposure to controlled amounts of heat and pressure. This allows engineering of the mineral formation, giving a high degree of control over its morphology and thus its characteristics.
Ground calcium carbonate (GCC)
originates from the sedimentation of seashells and other marine life, which formed deep bands of chalk and limestone. Exposure to intense heat and pressure as continents shifted, recrystalised some of these into marble as seen in the renowned mountains of Carrara in Italy. Grinding these minerals gives products with a precise shape and size, characterized by their high brightness. Imerys has a global platform for the production of GCC with reserves in Europe, North America and South America, Asia.
Natural or synthetic crystallized carbon used for applications including electrical batteries, friction products (e.g.brake pads) and technical lubricants.
High-Performance Graphites Engineering
Friction Materials: the rapid development in automotive applications over the past few years has created a growing demand for high quality friction materials. Besides of a high level of energy adsorption, the main requirement that a brake lining has to meet is high braking efficiency within a wide range of temperature. Other factors such as lifetime, absence of noise as well as comfort aspects have also to be taken into consideration. These requirements are fulfilled by means of high performance brake pads, in which carbon powders such as graphite and coke play a key role. Carbon Brushes: the “carbon part world” is a unique industry that has to comply with many and contradictory requirements such as: electrical and thermal conductivity, lubricity and hardness, mechanical strength and resistance to corrosion. These targets can be achieved only by very well defined high performance raw materials of outstanding consistency such as graphite and coke. Plastics: on account of their precisely defined characteristics and consistency in quality, TIMCAL carbon additives are used in large number of well known plastics compounds. Depending on the specification, the following properties can be defined or modified: both thermal and electrical properties, chemical properties, processability and specific mechanical properties. Powder Metallurgy: graphite powders play an important role in powder metallurgy. Depending on the segment within the powder metallurgy industry, graphite powders have to meet different, particular requirements. In the production of hard metals, as an example, the purity of the graphite is of primary importance, whereas in the production of structural components dimensional stability, compactibility and lubricity are additional key factors. Diamond: diamonds are forever! As it is well known two big families of Diamonds are present in the market. Natural Diamonds extract from the mines and Synthetic Diamonds. Synthetic Diamonds can be used in many industrials fields, such as cutting tools, drilling and laser applications. For all of these applications, Diamond purity is the key factor. This requirement is fulfilled by means of very high purity raw materials, in which both synthetic and natural purified graphite powders represents the optimum starting material.
High-Performance Graphites Mobile Energy
Alcaline Batteries: non-rechargeable high-power batteries. Their power is being continuously increased through a technical development using sophisticated graphite materials with high electrical conductivity. These batteries are used, for instance, in portable CD-players, remote-controlled toys etc Lithium-ion Batteries: lithium-based high-tech rechargeable batteries. Their safe functioning is ensured by a special graphite electrode. They are used in mobile telephones, portable computers, video cameras etc. Fuel Cells: continuously fuelled system converting chemical energy into electricity. This principle allows very high efficiency and a low environmental impact. Still in development, these cells need new high-technology graphite materials. Their use may be stationary (domestic energy supply) or mobile (cars, telecommunication).
High-Performance Graphites Refractories and Foils
Refractories: graphite is added to basic refractories to improve properties such as resistance to molten metal or slag penetration and thermal shock resistance. Typical applications for graphite containing refractories are linings for blast furnaces, electric arc furnaces and steel laddles. Foils: by intercalating acid between graphite layers and then heating rapidly the created “salt”, exfoliated or expanded graphite is produced. This expanded graphite can then be pressed or rolled into flexible sheets or foils which are then used for gasket making. These foils retain their properties over a wide range of temperatures.
made of a natural or synthetic mineral raw materials, including chamottes, andalusite, mullite, bauxite, tabular or fuse dalumina, spinel (“acid” monolithic”), magnesite, dolomite and chromite (“basic” monolithics), to which are added binders, e.g. refractory cement, clay and additives.Monolithic refractories are fitted by casting, plugging or projection.